Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process. — Characteristics of a teacher include formal education, teaching tenure, age, gender, training experience, accessibility for working as a teacher (city or village), participation in professional organizations of teachers [5],[8].

Based on the literature review on characteristics of a teacher related to ICT, gender does not affect teachers ‘attitudes toward ICT [9] but is strongly associated with teachers’ beliefs and perceptions [10], collaboration with friends, seeking information and data processing, men are better than women [11].

Age significantly influences ICT skills [11]. The teaching experience is correlated positively with the use of ICT [12]. ICT facilities (hardware, software, and infrastructure) are positively correlated with the success of learning [13]. The ownership length of the home computer and the experience of using computer severely affected the use of ICT [14].

Demographics factors that influence abilities to use ICT for example income level, level of education, age, and gender [15]-[17]. Factor the young teachers are better than the old teachers in using ICT resources [18]. Factor demographic those male teachers more receptive than the female teachers to ICT use [19]-[21].

Factor demographic level of education people influences on the use of ICT. A person that uses ICT is mainly educated people [15], because they have more skills and chances to go online [22]. According to [23] said that the use of ICT by teachers is also influenced by academic discipline (that is, mathematic, sciences, social, arts, and humanities).

There are teachers who master ICT, but who are less successful at integrating it in learning process [12]. The important thing for a teacher to learn is how to convey the material with ICT, not only the ability of students to master ICT. Some student’s easilly grasp the material and quickly master the ICT, some students master ICT only, and some students need technical assistance for both.

Therefore, a teacher must have a sound learning plan to overcome the problems of students, especially the beginners. Effective teaching implementing ICT requires an understanding of how technology relates to pedagogy and learning content; then the knowledge of technology cannot be handled independently of the material. An interdisciplinary approach is necessary to integrate ICT in learning process [3],[7],[24],[25].

Books and Laptop

Teachers must understand how technology, pedagogy, learning content, and knowledge are an interconnected unity in the learning process. Teaching with technology requires a flexible framework that can be integrated with various pedagogical approaches and for various learning content/materials.

The first step teachers should undertake is to formulate the learning objectives, then to choose the appropriate type of activity for that purpose, and then to choose the right technology [26]. Teachers should be careful in choosing the right strategies and technologies in learning process [25].

Read : Teachers Who are Competent in Teaching Edmodo Applications

Instructional practices with ICT are able to enhance and support teaching and learning effectively [27]. The technologies can mediate interaction, but it is how these technologies pedagogies are used to support collaborative practices optimally so that these make the difference in teaching and learning [28].

The teacher requires preparing deeper plan to teach with ICT, starting planning, implementation, and finally evaluation. Using technology can effectively improve pedagogical abilities in learning [29]. ICT as a tool for improving the presentation of material, for making lessons more fun for the learners and for making administration more efficient [30]. The use of ICTs in pedagogy could promote ‘deep’ learning [31].

Use technology in schools enables shifts in pedagogical practices, thus enable benefiting students’ learning [32]. ICT supported learning environments can enhance to meaningful constructivist teaching and to make of learning environments to be the ideal [33].

This is shown that the use of ICT for teaching and learning very necessary. Therefore, pedagogy is required using ICT in learning [34]. The educators may need extensive knowledge of ICT to be able to understand how to integrate the ICT into their pedagogy teaching [34]. The use of ICT and integration of technology is dependent on number teachers’ readiness, confidence, knowledge, and ability to evaluate the role of ICT in teaching and learning.

relating to ICT include a computer, the Internet, hardware, and software. One free learning tool, available in a variety of applications, on the Internet includes social networking media [35],[36]. Social networking sites that can be used include Facebook, Twitter, Blog, Edmodo, and Google docs [12]. An online tool that offers users a free cost to join and allows users to communicate and interact with each other is Edmodo. Edmodo’s social media is a tool to enhance learning experiences on science subjects.



[[5] D. Bebell, M. Russell, dan L. O. Dwyer, “Measuring Teachers’ Technology Uses: Why Multiple-Measures Are More Revealing,” International Society for Technology in Educationvol, vol/issue: 37(1), pp. 45–63, 2004.

[6] A. Chigona and W. Chigona, “Capability approach on pedagogical use of ICT in schools,” TD The Journal forTransdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa, vol/issue: 6(1), pp. 209–224, 2010.

[7] J. Hughes, “The role of teacher knowledge and learning experiences in forming technology- integrated pedagogy,”J Technol Teach Educ, vol/issue: 13(2), pp. 277–302, 2005.

[8] A. D. Ritzhaupt, et al., “Explaining technology integration in K-12 classrooms: a multilevel path analysis model,” JEduc Comput Res, vol. 46, pp. 229–254, 2012.

[9] J. D. Shapka and M. Ferrari, “Computer-related attitudes and actions of teacher candidates,” Computers in Human,vol/issue: 19(3), pp. 319-334, 2003.

[10] A. Jimoyiannis, “Developing a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework for Science Education:Implications of a Teacher Trainers’ Preparation Program The Notion of Technological Pedagogical ContentKnowledge,” Proceedings of Informing Science & IT Education Conference, pp. 597-607, 2010.

[11] L. Deniz, “İlköğretim Okullarında Görev Yapan Sınıf ve Alan Öğretmenlerinin Bilgisayar Tutumları,” ComputHuman Behav, vol/issue: 4(4), pp. 30, 2005.

[12] P. Garcia and S. Rose, “The Influence of Technocentric Collaboration on Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes AboutTechnology’s Role in Powerful Learning and TeachingNo Title,” J Technol Teach Educ, vol/issue: 15(2), pp. 247–266, 2007.

[13] S. Owusu-ansah, “Application Of Information And Communication Technology ( Ict ): A Comparative Analysis ofMale and Female Academics in Africa,” Libr Philos Pract, pp. 1-35, 2013.

[14] B. Cavas, et al., “A study on science teachers’ attitudes toward information and communications technologies ineducation,” Turkish Online J Educ Technol, vol/issue: 8(2), pp. 20–32, 2009.

[15] W. M. Olatokun and O. C. Adeboyejo, “Information and communication technology use by reproductive healthworkers in nigeria: state of the art, issues, and challenges,” An Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments, vol/issue: 5(2), pp. 181–207, 2009. ISSN: 2252-8822 IJERE Vol. 6, No. 4, December 2017 : 299 – 305

[16] UNDP, “Promoting ICT for human development programme. A Pionnering Regional Human Development Report in Asia,” 2011.

[17] A. Abu-Obaideh, et al., “ Effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and supporting factors on ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia,” International Education Studies, vol/issue: 5(6), pp. 229-243, 2012.

[18] M. Sanni, et al., ”Harnessing the Potentials of Internet Technology for Research and Development among Undergraduates in Nigeria: A Case Study of Obafemi Awolowo University,” International Journal of Computing and ICT Research, vol/issue: 3(1), 2009.

[19] E. Alampay, “Analyzing socio-demographic differences in the access and use of ICTs in the Philippines using the capability approach,” The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, vol/issue: 27(5), pp. 1-39, 2006.

[20] Z. A. Samak, “An Exploration of Jordanian English Language Teachers’attitudes,Skills, and Access As Indicator of Information and Communication Technology Integration in Jordan,” 2006.

[21] A. Sadik, “Factors influencing teachers’ attitudes toward personal use and school use of computers: New evidence from a developing nation,” vol/issue: 30(1), pp. 86-113, 2006.

[22] R. Taylor and H. C. Lee, “Occupational therapists’ perception of usage of information and communication technology in western Australia and the association of availability of ICT on recruitment and retention of therapists working in rural areas,” Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, vol. 52, pp. 51–56, 2005.

[23] V. M. A. Mbarika, et al., “ The neglected continent of IS research: A research agenda for Sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol/issue: 6(5), pp. 130-170, 2005.

[24] M. L. Niess, “Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge,” Teach Teach Educ, vol/issue: 21(5), pp. 509–523, 2005.

[25] M. J. Koehler and J. M. Rosenberg, “The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework for Teachers and Teacher Educators,” pp. 1–8, 2013.

[26] P. Mishra and M. J. Koehler, “Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge,” Teach Coll Rec, vol/issue: 108(6), pp. 1017–1054, 2006.

[27] U. Girgin, et al., “Technology Integration Issues in a Special Education School in Turkey,” Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, vol/issue: 6(1), 2011.

[28] C. Hoyles and J. B Lagrange, “Mathematics Education and Technology: Rethinking The Terrain,” Springer, 2009.

[29] J. Louw, et al., “Time-on-task, technology and mathematics achievement,” Evaluation and Program Planning, vol. 31, pp. 41–50, 2008.

[30] BECTA, “What the research says about using ICT in Maths,” 2003.

[31] B. T. Lau and C. H. Sim, “Exploring the extent of ICT adoption among secondary school teachers in Malaysia,” International Journal of Computing and IT Research, vol/issue: 2(2), pp. 19-36, 2008.

[32] J. Hardman, “An exploratory case study of computer use in a primary school mathematics classroom: New technology, new pedagogy?” Perspectives in Education, vol/issue: 23(4), pp. 99-111, 2005.

[33] P. C. Newhouse, “The impact of ICT on learning and teaching,” 2002.

[34] M. Cox, et al., ”ICT and pedagogy: A review of the research literature, ICT in Schools,” Research and Evaluation Series, vol.18, 2003.

[35] M. B. Cruz and S. B. B. Cruz, “The Use of Internet-Based Social Media as a Tool in Enhancing Student’s Learning Experiences in Biological Sciences,” High Learn Res Community, vol/issue: 3(4), pp. 68–80, 2013.

[36] F. A. Mokhtar and H. Dzakiria, “Illuminating the Potential of Edmodo as an Interactive Virtual Learning Platform for English Language Learning and Teaching,” Malaysian J Distance Educ, vol/issue: 17(1), pp. 83–98, 2015.

Source :

0 thoughts on “Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *