Language Learning Strategy in Higher Education

Learning strategies are the thoughts and actions we engage in, consciously or not, to learn new information. The goal of teaching-learning strategies is to help students to consciously control how they learn so that they can be efficient, motivated, and independent language learners (Chamot, Barnhardt, El-Dinary, & Robbins, 1999).

Learning strategies are defined as “specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task — used by students to enhance their learning” (Scarcella & Oxford, 1992, p.63). When the learner consciously chooses strategies that fit his or her learning style and the L2 task at hand, these strategies become a useful toolkit for active, conscious, and purposeful self-regulation of learning.

Read : 8 Educational Websites for Teachers to Light Up Your Class

Learning strategies instruction intends to help all students become better language learners. When students begin to understand their own learning processes and can exert some control over these processes, they tend to take more responsibility for their own learning. This self-knowledge and skill in regulating one’s own learning is a characteristic of successful learners, including successful language learners. Research with both first and second language learners is revealing some of the ways of thinking that guide and assist an individual’s attempts to learn more effectively (Paris & Winograd, 1990).

Students who think and work strategically are more motivated to learn and have a higher sense of self-efficacy or confidence in their own learning ability. That is, strategic students, perceive themselves as more able to succeed academically than students who do not know how to use strategies effectively. Students who expect to be successful at a learning task generally are successful, and each successful learning experience increases motivation.

Language Learning in Higher Education

In university-level language learning involves higher, more demanding skills and tasks such as reading a novel, analyzing a poem or story, listening to lectures, or writing a research paper. Learning strategies can help students meet these demands.

In addition to this level also, the teachers expect students to work independently and be responsible for their own learning. Learners are therefore challenged to manage their language studies in a variety of ways. Strategic learning encourages students to take that responsibility and reflect on their own thinking process as well. For instance, learners who are aware of effective learning practices monitor their progress and evaluate their performance and achievement. Students who have a repertoire of strategies at their disposal can make sophisticated learning decisions.

Read : How to Measure Autonomy in Language Learning

Understanding the language learning process will encourage students’ acquisition and critical analysis of language learning issues. Learning strategies instruction allows teachers and students to talk about the learning process in the target language. The learners can take advantage of this information and practice sources. Teaching students learning strategies will help encourage them to access and use varying educational opportunities.

As teachers, we often focus more on how we teach than on how our students learn. Learning strategies instruction forces us to examine not just what we do to teach effectively, but what our students do to facilitate their own learning. When we think about curriculum, lesson design, or even how we respond to student questions, learning strategies instruction helps us focus on the how of learning rather than the what.

In a classroom that incorporates learning strategies instruction, the teacher and the students attend to the learning process and consider how to improve it. In a learner-centered classroom, both the teacher and the students must share the responsibility of learning. Both must believe that by focusing on learning strategies, learning will be enhanced. Learning strategies instruction requires a learner-centered approach to teaching.

References :

Chamot, A . U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J. (1999). The learning strategies handbook. White Plains, NY: Addison-Wesley Longman.

carcella, R. & Oxford, R., 1992: The Tapestry of Language Learning: The Individual in the Communicative Classroom

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum

Source :

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How to Measure Autonomy in Language Learning

How to measure autonomy in language learning. — In this chapter I am going to talk about the difficulties found while trying to measure autonomy. In addition, I am going to briefly describe some of the studies done about autonomous language learning.

The most famous example of a comparative study between traditional school and autonomous language learning is by Dam and Legenhausen (1996), who compared the autonomous classroom taught by Dam to a normal German classroom. They found that the learners from an autonomous classroom used the language in a more varied manner than the learners from a mainstream classroom. Little mentions that :

They have provided a wealth of evidence to show how and why Dam’s approach is more successful than mainstream teacher-led approaches (see, e.g., Dam and Legenhausen 1996, Legenhausen 1999a, 1999b, 1999c). (Little (n.d.) online)

Legenhausen has continued to provide data on the topic, mostly with data collected on the project called LAALE (Language Acquisition in an Autonomous Learning Environment) (Legenhausen 2001: 57).

Book Read. src:

Autonomy is generally discussed as having different degrees, and learners becoming ‘more’ or ‘less’ autonomous over time, and as Benson (2011: 65) notes this implies that we have at least some ‘intuitive scale’ for measuring autonomy. However, more precise scale of autonomy is not available, because of the individual nature of autonomy. Benson provides us with an example of this:

At the risk of over-simplification, one learner may be good at drawing up and following study plans using self-access materials, while another may be good at creating opportunities for interaction with target language speakers. Learners may also call upon different aspects of autonomy as different situations demand them. We might want to say that these learners are ‘equally’ autonomous, although they are, in fact, autonomous in different and possibly noncomparable, ways (Benson 2011: 66)

Benson notes that in order to measure autonomy we have to be able to determine the components autonomy consists of. However, the problem lies with the fact that not all the elements are visible (Benson 2011: 65-66).

Read : 8 Educational Websites for Teachers to Light Up Your Class

Moreover, Breen and Mann (1997: 141) discuss the possible danger of creating situations where learners start to wear a ‘mask of autonomous behaviour’, which means that learners learn to imitate the kind of behaviour the teacher requires them to perform, instead of genuinely becoming autonomous. According to Benson (2011: 68-69) there has not yet been a reliable method of testing autonomy, but what can be seen from the current study is that the tests need to be context-sensitive and usually suitable only for single use. It would seem that rather than being able to give an accurate scale of learners’ autonomy, we are able collect and record the personal experiences of learners. This method has been used for instance by Karlsson (1997) and Nordlund (1997) in the ALMS-project at the University of Helsinki.

All though an important area of study, measuring autonomy as such is not the focus of this study. Rather than trying to measure levels of autonomy or compare it to other learning styles, the current study studied the attitudes and preparedness of teachers, teacher trainees and learners towards autonomy even before they necessarily had experienced autonomous learning.

Source : 

Dam, L. & Legenhausen, L. (1996). The acquisition of vocabulary in an autonomous learning environment – The first months of beginning English. In R. Pemberton, E. S. L. Li, W. W. F. Or and H. D. Pierson (Eds.), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 265-280.

Legenhausen, L. (2001). Discourse behaviour in an autonomous learning environment. In L. Dam (Ed.), The Aila Review 15. United Kingdom: The Charlesworth Group, 56-69.

Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and Researching: Autonomy in Language Learning (2nd edition). Great Britain: Pearson Education.

Breen, M. P. & Mann, S. (1997). Shooting arrows at the sun: Perspectives on a pedagogy for autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (eds.), Autonomy and independence in language learning. London: Longman, 132-149.

Karlsson, L. (1997). Student and teacher case studies. In L. Karlsson, F. Kjisik and J. Nordlund (eds.) From Here to Autonomy. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 93-120. [online]

Nordlund, J. (1997). Research into attitudes towards autonomy among teachers and learners, and the process of change. In L. Karlsson, F. Kjisik and J. Nordlund (eds.) From Here to Autonomy. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 65-93. [online]

Author : Johanna Riihimäki

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8 Educational Websites for Teachers to Light Up Your Class

Introduction: Here is a list of great educational websites for teachers that will help you to conduct interesting activities in class. Be sure to check them out.



Teachers have so many tasks to do in a day that it needs extra energy to find the best resources online that can help them to develop. Meanwhile, there are countless websites that claim to provide complete educational content. Therefore, here is a list of great educational websites for teachers that you can visit when you need new insight before going to the class.

Read : 5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

So, sit back and relax behind your laptop. Save your time by finding the best material on the trustworthy websites below.

  1. Khan Academy. Khan Academy provides powerful tools to help teachers identify what students need. The trusted contents are free for teachers and learners. There are many videos of implementation strategies; including in-class practice, how to give useful homework, plans to engage and motivate students, and many more. Khan Academy offers various contents in Mathematics, but also has some in science, economics, and many more.
  2. If you are trying to find educational websites for teachers’ lesson plans, is the right answer. It has various sites to engage students, simplify lesson planning, involve their families in learning, and keep the classroom running smoothly. There are Scholastic Teachables for lesson plans, Book Wizard for the classroom library, Scholastic Book Clubs, and many more.
  3. Common Sense Media. If you think you need to use media, such as movies, games, or apps, you should check it before bringing them to the class. Save your time by accessing teacher-created reviews in Common Sense Media. The website has countless tips and recommendations on the best teaching tools and resources.
  4. TED-Ed. If you are familiar with TED Talks on YouTube, it is time to check one of the educational websites for students and Teacher, Here you can discover ideas on how to engage, motivate, and spark the curiosity of learners. You can create customized lessons and inspire the students to think critically and share their innovative ideas.
  5. Open Educational Resources (OER). Do you need to collaborate with educators around the world? Join groups that provide a flexible environment to share and organize resources. Create and explore fantastic educational resources to improve the curriculum in your school by joining the OER at OER provides many videos with supporting materials that you can use in the classroom.
  6. Readwritethink is one of the complete literacy websites for teachers that provides classroom resources; such as lesson plans and teaching media (cards, video, high-quality power points, comic strips, and many more). Make your class fun using various media from the website and find free teacher resources printables here.
  7. CK12. has teaching and learning materials for various subjects that you can easily download anytime. It provides teaching books called FlexBooks, a selection of digital textbooks and interactive content you can use to develop teaching skills. The website helps teachers to organize their online or offline classrooms with automatic grading and reporting.
  8. Super Teacher Worksheet. If you want to increase your students’ literacy skills, visit The website provides worksheets on graded reading comprehension, English grammar, Science, Social Studies, and Mathematics. There are puzzles and brain teasers you can use to engage students in fun learning activities.

After all, each educational website has different content to provide. Invest some time to explore them and find high-quality lesson plans, education videos, and entertaining games. Help your students to learn not only about subject knowledge but also problem-solving skills.

Read : Primary School Teacher Qualification; The Essential Things

Next time when you have time to explore new things on the internet, do not forget to check the educational websites for teachers above. Improving the students’ motivation to learn and engaging them in the classroom is easier if you use interactive media and creative lesson plans.


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5 Must Try Educational Technology Tools for Student

Description: Educational technology tools for student has made the learning process feel engaging and fun. Discover 5 well-developed software that has improved student lives



Educational technology (EdTech) has shaped the face of learning in the digital era with its limitless possibility. Teachers praised it for its versatility in many contexts, and students do embrace it, for it gives them a whole new level of experience. Educational technology tools for student are a definite gem.

Read : Easy Tips on How to Teach Financial Education for Kids

Software developers have collaborated with educational experts, schools, and higher institutions to create the novel digital learning tools. A lot of students have used them regularly and send positive feedback as they get the benefits. So, here are 5 EdTech tools that have forever changed the way students learn.

  1. Edmodo. Imagine a social media-alike platform that enables students to connect with their teachers and classmates at fingertips. That’s how Edmodo comes up with the idea of building a learning ecosystem that’s not only inclusive but also interactive. Students will feel a sense of connectedness, even with distance learning.Edmodo has many incredible features, such as class folders and also a built-in planner. It makes the students feel less stressed and overwhelmed. Students can also instantly message the teachers or even ask help from classmates whenever they encounter a problem.
  2. Google Arts and Culture. There is more to Google other than what we have been getting familiar with all this time. Google Arts and Culture is one of the educational technology apps that enrich student’s experience to explore art collections from many parts of the world. Visit the Van Gogh museum or zoom-in Frida Kahlo’s self-portrait art pieces.Learning arts and history will never feel the same anymore, and even it can be very addictive. This platform does offer a musical tour that, at the same time, introduces students to various world music virtuosos from the past centuries. Here’s when technology promotes artistic intelligence instead of hindering it.
  3. Great Big Story. Curiosity is the driving factor that makes a learning process feel adventurous, and it becomes the very core trait of a lifetime learner. Answering the demand of all curious students, Great Big Story brings knowledge, facts, and stories in an easy-to-access package. It promotes optimism on how amazing this humankind is.Most of the contents come in short-video forms and bite-sized articles. Everyone can dive into it through their official websites, mobile apps, and even YouTube account. Learn further how an astronaut’s life looks, or how do Japanese farmers grow white strawberries and cubed watermelon.
  4. Hemingway Editor.Writing is a practical skill that contributes a lot to a student’s journey, and it becomes one of the greatest assets in the future. Most students find it very intriguing to master English writing, no matter if they are native speakers or not. Here’s why Hemingway Editor is now available to help students in language lessons.Just copy and paste your writing pieces, and the tool will highlight any grammatical errors, passive voices, and complicated sentences. This kind of artificial intelligence machine is the best assistance to learn how to achieve bold and precise writing. Surely, everyone needs to write out in their best possible way.
  5. Matific. Math is no longer a nightmare, thanks to the development of Matific as they gamify math like none ever did before. This example of innovative teaching tools is suitable for children from ages 4 to 11 and comes in an experimental game. Matific utilizes daily settings and ordinary objects to teach basic mathematical concepts.Studies have proven that learning math using Matific for at least 15 minutes a week will foster a child’s problem-solving skill and critical thinking. Here’s to welcoming the era where learning math is enjoyable and engaging.

Read : 5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

So, these are 5 educational technology tools for student that help in facilitating a better learning experience. As much as students love them, teachers will be forever thankful too as now they’re having a lot of useful tools to develop creative teaching. Hopefully, you find any insights from this information and want to give them a try!


Easy Tips on How to Teach Financial Education for Kids

Introduction: Financial education for kids is as important as for adults. How to teach them about it with simple and fun steps?



Financial education for kids is as important as for adults. If kids can understand and practice a proper way to manage their money, it will become a long-term ability. It will be useful intelligence for their entire life.

If kids are financially literate, they will learn more about how to make wise spending as they grow. They will have less risk of engaging in impulsive buying behavior and wasting money. Kids can start creating financial goals and find ways to achieve them.

Read : 5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

Steps to Learn Financial Education for Kids

Kids pick up various information, starting very young, and it is essential to mold positive financial behaviors. Below are some steps that kids need to do. Most of the time, they will need your help to direct, assist, and evaluate why certain things happen.

  1. Making Spending Decisions. Newborn babies have choices. O the first year, they have made many decisions in life, such as what they want to eat and play. As parents, you can encourage them to make decisions more often.When they can talk, you can start to involve them in shopping, asking them to choose between two snacks, two toys, and many more. If they ask to buy things that they do not need, or which are too expensive, it is the time to teach them lessons about flexible spending.
  2. Spending Plans (Spend, Save and Give). Most of the preschool-aged children can make a simple spending plan. You can teach them to manage how much money they can spend, save, and give. Do not forget to tell them the benefits of saving and giving, and why people should do that.Some children already want to buy certain toys or clothes because they see that their friends have them. It is time to teach them about short-term savings before buying things.
  3. Understanding the Value of Money. Teaching kids about money could be very challenging if you did not start it when they were still in preschool. They should learn how money works and how people earn it. It will let them think twice before asking for some money for less necessary things.At the same time, this process will teach the kids about hard work. Tell them that people should work hard to earn money and think wisely before spending it. If your kids can count, teach them to count money and why it is vital to save it for long-term goals.
  4. Financial Responsibility. How to teach your child financial responsibility? When kids start to write and count, teach them to keep a record of money allowance and spending. It will develop their skills to know how much money they have spent (and what they use it for), how much money is still available, and how much money that they need to save for future spending.
  5. Prepare for Any Peer Pressure. Although you have taught your kids the importance of spending money wisely, at around age 8, peer pressure will begin.Kids are influencing each other about what they want to buy, clothes to choose, and many more. Parents and teachers need to set good examples and open to discussion with kids about this experience.

Read : Primary School Teacher Qualification; The Essential Things

Fun Ways to Learn Financial Education

Nowadays, you can invite kids to have fun ways of learning by using financial literacy games for elementary students. There are countless financial literacy activities you can play with them.

Teaching financial education for kids is a long-term project. Talking about money should become a habit so that they will not be shy to express what they know and what they want to do with it now and in the future.


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5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

Description: In this digital age, educational technology importance can never be underestimated. It shapes the face of personalized distance learnings and benefits everyone.



In the age of digital revolution, the utilization of technology to accelerate the learning process is unavoidable. Amidst all of the pros and cons, understanding educational technology importance gives a sense of direction on why it comes to term now. Thanks to those creative brains who put effort into making it works.

Educational technology (or mostly shortened as EdTech) is now an on growing industry that achieves a rapid milestone. Even in 2017 alone, the number of global investments in this field reached up to USD 8.5 billion. Here are 5 top reasons why EdTech is a matter, and none could put aside the importance of it.

Read :  Teachers Who are Competent in Teaching Edmodo Applications

  1. It Promotes an Interactive Learning. One of the most challenges in a knowledge transfer is how to make a student feels engaged with the subject. It gets even more challenging as some students have an issue with a shorter attention span. The benefits of educational technology are by solving this problem by creating immersive interactive learning.For example, old-fashioned history teaching can feel daunting and not relevant. However, how if a student can visit a virtual museum and start to explore the ancient civilizations? The interactive learning turns out as addictive, and students will keep coming back as they’re in a flow state of curiosity.
  2. Helps Teacher to Create an Innovative Lesson Plan. Gen Z may be entitled to their nature as digital natives since technology is an inherent part of their lives. Hence, one of the most valuable teaching skills nowadays is an adaptation to technology. It may take some time for a teacher to deal with all of the software and tools, but in return, it is a definite game-changer.Along with all of the learning software and apps, it is now easier for any teachers to develop an innovative lesson plan. The possibilities can be limitless as inspirations and fresh ideas from the internet are abundant. There’s no doubt when it comes to the importance of technology in the classroom.
  3. Enables Personalized Distance Learning. Every student is born differently and unique to each other. It will be such a massive waste of time to teach them conventionally. The rise of EdTech provides the opportunity for students to learn at their own pace. They can also choose what topics they want to go deeper. For example, if a student has the interest to learn a foreign language, they can use Duolingo or other similar apps and sign up in any course they want. It even reduces the cost of having to attend an in-class course and buying textbooks.
  4. Shifting Teacher-Student Relations. Forget the mundane concept of one-way teaching, where the teacher feeds the student with all of the theories and trivia stuff. Technology has played a role in making interpersonal communication way less awkward.A teacher is best described now as an education facilitator that makes the learning process becomes more fun, meaningful, and engaging. Especially in an uncertain time where direct teaching is not possible, the use of technology in education comes to solve, not to disrupt.
  5. Bettering the Evaluation System. One of the most visible positive outcomes of EdTech is how it has changed the testing and evaluation system. When automation takes charge, the teacher can monitor the student progress in real-time. It applies as well for any assessment activity, where it becomes more efficient and accurate in the scoring process.

Read : Primary School Teacher Qualification; The Essential Things

Aside from those 5 reasons, Educational Technology does help in boosting students’ creativity as they now create videos and animation for their assignments. Also, in a recent pandemic era, it even plays a more significant role in supporting students to learn without leaving their house. 

With all of those benefits, there’s no doubt that educational technology importance matters to every learner. Eventually, it has shaped the face of schooling in the digital age.


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Primary School Teacher Qualification; The Essential Things

Introduction: Primary school teacher qualification requires you not only to have a formal academic degree but also to understand the job descriptions. So, what to do first?



How to become an excellent primary school teacher? Primary school teacher qualification requires you not only to have a formal academic degree but also to understand the job descriptions. Primary school teachers should engage children from around 5 to 12 years old with the learning process. 

Primary school teachers spend most of their time developing the students’ numeracy and literacy skills. At the same time, they need to foster emotional, social, and physical growth. To be a reliable teacher, here are some essential things that you can do. 

Read : Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

Make Sure You Have A Qualified Teacher Status

The first step to reaching your dream to become a primary school teacher is to study well through formal and informal programs related to the job. Here are some ways to get the knowledge you need.

  • Completing an Undergraduate Education Degree

Many countries require people to have an undergraduate education degree before applying as teachers. So, completing a degree in Primary Education (Bachelor of Primary Education) will let you learn about the knowledge needed to engage young learners in primary school and teach a full range of subjects.

If you think you need to know more, pursuing a postgraduate degree as a Master of Education specializing in Primary Education is the right decision. After getting a formal degree, register yourself to the Teacher Registration Authority.

  • Taking Teacher Training Courses

Sometimes, a bachelor’s or master’s degree is not enough when it comes to an understanding of the needs of students. Therefore, you can consider taking a primary teacher training course. There are two types of recommended courses you can try, as explained below:

  • University-led Initial Teacher Training

Some universities hold teacher training programs periodically, and you can register yourself to join some of them. The university will provide thematic courses, and some of them may help you to get in-school experience.

  • School-led Initial Teacher Training

If you have been accepted to work as a primary school teacher, the school can arrange some teacher training programs for you and the other teachers in the institution. 

  • Getting Some Experience

Teachers prepare lesson plans, assess and evaluate the students’ progress, facilitate them to learn, but what is next? There are more things to do as a teacher. To know more primary school teacher job description, you should get some experience. 

Read : Teachers Who are Competent in Teaching Edmodo Applications

You can apply as a teaching assistant to know more about the criteria of a good teacher. You can observe how a primary school teacher works daily and develop your skill in handling the tasks and taking care of the students. 

Find Out the Essential Skills and Attitude to Meet the Criteria

To make sure you do well in handling primary school teacher jobs, you need to develop some skills and attitudes to meet the criteria. An excellent primary teacher should:

  1. Have an excellent communication ability, especially when he/she talks to the children, parents, and fellow teachers.
  2. Be patient and calm most of the time. It is essential to know how to handle the pressure.
  3. Be productive and efficient problem solvers. Complaining about every little thing that happens around you will not make you a reliable teacher. 
  4. Be consistent and committed.

Keep Learning, Be the Best Primary School Teacher 

After all, being an excellent primary school teacher is a long-term process. So, learning continuously, developing skills while enjoying the time with the children are crucial things to do as a teacher. Be sure not to miss any opportunity to train yourself about a new method or technology which will be useful for the teaching and learning process. 

Those are some information about primary school teacher qualification. Do you want to pursue your dream of being an awesome teacher? 


The Importance of Technology for Education

The Importance of Technology for Education. — Increasing technology in this era of modern globalization can be applied to the world of education, as more and more sophisticated facilities to facilitate the learning process delivered. Here is the importance of technology to always follow its development.

The use of technology proved to increase the interest of children’s learning because of the more interesting look, so it will avoid the saturated feeling during the lesson. As in Indonesia, most schools are still not using technology in education.

If you want to know how important technology is in education, then you are currently in the right website page.

We will provide more information about the advantages of technology implementation in education. Here is the full explanation.


The meaning of learning technology is an application or media that has been modernly designed and used as a theory and practice in learning, as a learning resource. Nowadays, the technology that has been used in education is information technology.

Read : Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

The existence of information used for learning media can have a positive impact on the students, that they can be easier to find the information needed during the learning process. The Media that can be used is to provide a computer and Internet in each school.



The first benefit of using technology is as a supporting means for students and educators to seek out broader information, in addition to utilizing the source of books and printed media.


The information on the Internet is more update, so students can easily access the new information needed, under the supervision of a teacher.


The learning process can be simplified with technology in education. Suppose teachers can give learning materials or assignments by email so that learners can quickly finish and get the task done.


The use of technology in education can make learners more comfortable and not impressed by saturated or monotonous. Because the delivery of information through advanced technology looks more varied and modern.


More complete information and knowledge and easy access can make students more interested in conducting their learning.

Read : 5 Top Reasons for the Educational Technology Importance

The use of technology in education does have some benefits for the continuity of learning. However, on the other hand, you should keep an eye on children while utilizing technology. Because of the easy information that is easily accessible in technology, not only positive information but also negative information.

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Learning on Knives, if Often Sharpened, it Will Often be Used

Learning on Knives, if Often Sharpened, it Will Often be Used. — If someone is going to cut something then it takes the best sharp objects. One of these sharp objects is a knife. A common knife is used to cut small objects, soft objects, and of course objects that are around the house. Also, the knife is used for kitchen activities and cooking.

If we look at the knife it will be in our minds that it is a sharp object, a very dangerous object, and not a toy object. The blade of the knife greatly speeds up the cutting process and all the work using sharp objects can be accelerated.

Read : Learning Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

If a person often uses a knife, it certainly must be often sharpened, because the knife if continuously used will be fast blunt, especially when cutting little hard objects. If the knife is often sharpened, its sharpness will be continuously maintained, and will surely be used frequently.

If the knife we make a parable then as a human, whatever our capabilities and competence, must always be sharpened continuously, in other languages must be trained in the ability, to stay awake and continue to evolve our capabilities. Skills and skills are capable and evolving, will be used continuously, will not disappear, kalua in the term knife then it will not rust.

As a human being benefits to someone else is done, because as good as a human being is a beneficial person for others. Like a knife, if it is continuously sharpened, it will be beneficial to use.

Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process

Information and Communications Technology in the Learning Process. — Characteristics of a teacher include formal education, teaching tenure, age, gender, training experience, accessibility for working as a teacher (city or village), participation in professional organizations of teachers [5],[8].

Based on the literature review on characteristics of a teacher related to ICT, gender does not affect teachers ‘attitudes toward ICT [9] but is strongly associated with teachers’ beliefs and perceptions [10], collaboration with friends, seeking information and data processing, men are better than women [11].

Age significantly influences ICT skills [11]. The teaching experience is correlated positively with the use of ICT [12]. ICT facilities (hardware, software, and infrastructure) are positively correlated with the success of learning [13]. The ownership length of the home computer and the experience of using computer severely affected the use of ICT [14].

Demographics factors that influence abilities to use ICT for example income level, level of education, age, and gender [15]-[17]. Factor the young teachers are better than the old teachers in using ICT resources [18]. Factor demographic those male teachers more receptive than the female teachers to ICT use [19]-[21].

Factor demographic level of education people influences on the use of ICT. A person that uses ICT is mainly educated people [15], because they have more skills and chances to go online [22]. According to [23] said that the use of ICT by teachers is also influenced by academic discipline (that is, mathematic, sciences, social, arts, and humanities).

There are teachers who master ICT, but who are less successful at integrating it in learning process [12]. The important thing for a teacher to learn is how to convey the material with ICT, not only the ability of students to master ICT. Some student’s easilly grasp the material and quickly master the ICT, some students master ICT only, and some students need technical assistance for both.

Therefore, a teacher must have a sound learning plan to overcome the problems of students, especially the beginners. Effective teaching implementing ICT requires an understanding of how technology relates to pedagogy and learning content; then the knowledge of technology cannot be handled independently of the material. An interdisciplinary approach is necessary to integrate ICT in learning process [3],[7],[24],[25].

Books and Laptop

Teachers must understand how technology, pedagogy, learning content, and knowledge are an interconnected unity in the learning process. Teaching with technology requires a flexible framework that can be integrated with various pedagogical approaches and for various learning content/materials.

The first step teachers should undertake is to formulate the learning objectives, then to choose the appropriate type of activity for that purpose, and then to choose the right technology [26]. Teachers should be careful in choosing the right strategies and technologies in learning process [25].

Read : Teachers Who are Competent in Teaching Edmodo Applications

Instructional practices with ICT are able to enhance and support teaching and learning effectively [27]. The technologies can mediate interaction, but it is how these technologies pedagogies are used to support collaborative practices optimally so that these make the difference in teaching and learning [28].

The teacher requires preparing deeper plan to teach with ICT, starting planning, implementation, and finally evaluation. Using technology can effectively improve pedagogical abilities in learning [29]. ICT as a tool for improving the presentation of material, for making lessons more fun for the learners and for making administration more efficient [30]. The use of ICTs in pedagogy could promote ‘deep’ learning [31].

Use technology in schools enables shifts in pedagogical practices, thus enable benefiting students’ learning [32]. ICT supported learning environments can enhance to meaningful constructivist teaching and to make of learning environments to be the ideal [33].

This is shown that the use of ICT for teaching and learning very necessary. Therefore, pedagogy is required using ICT in learning [34]. The educators may need extensive knowledge of ICT to be able to understand how to integrate the ICT into their pedagogy teaching [34]. The use of ICT and integration of technology is dependent on number teachers’ readiness, confidence, knowledge, and ability to evaluate the role of ICT in teaching and learning.

relating to ICT include a computer, the Internet, hardware, and software. One free learning tool, available in a variety of applications, on the Internet includes social networking media [35],[36]. Social networking sites that can be used include Facebook, Twitter, Blog, Edmodo, and Google docs [12]. An online tool that offers users a free cost to join and allows users to communicate and interact with each other is Edmodo. Edmodo’s social media is a tool to enhance learning experiences on science subjects.



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